Knowledge Base referenced from Wikipedia
A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo, carry specialized payloads, or perform other utilitarian work. Trucks vary greatly in size, power, and configuration, but the vast majority feature body-on-frame construction, with a cabin that is independent of the payload portion of the vehicle. Smaller varieties may be mechanically similar to some automobiles. Commercial trucks can be very large and powerful and may be configured to be mounted with specialized equipment, such as in the case of refuse trucks, fire trucks, concrete mixers, and suction excavators. In American English, a commercial vehicle without a trailer or other articulation is formally a “straight truck” while one designed specifically to pull a trailer is not a truck but a “tractor”.
The majority of trucks currently in use are still powered by diesel engines, although small- to medium-size trucks with gasoline engines exist in the US, Canada, and Mexico. The market-share of electrically-powered trucks is growing rapidly, expected to reach 7% globally by 2027, and electric motive force already predominates among both the largest and smallest trucks. In the European Union, vehicles with a gross combination mass of up to 3.5 t (3.4 long tons; 3.9 short tons) are known as light commercial vehicles, and those over as large goods vehicles.
In the United States, Canada, and the Philippines, “truck” is usually reserved for commercial vehicles larger than regular passenger cars, but includes large SUVs, pickups, and other vehicles with an open load bed. In Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, the word “truck” is mostly reserved for larger vehicles. In Australia and New Zealand, a pickup truck is frequently called a ute (short for “utility” vehicle), while in South Africa it is called a bakkie (Afrikaans: “small open container”). In the United Kingdom, India, Malaysia, Singapore, Ireland, and Hong Kong lorry is used instead of truck, but only for the medium and heavy types, while truck is used almost exclusively to refer to pickups.
List of truck types
This List of truck types is intended to classify trucks. The three main classifications for road truck by weight are light trucks, medium trucks, and heavy trucks. Above this there are specialised very heavy trucks and transporters such as heavy haulers for moving oversized loads, and off-road heavy haul trucks used in and mining which are too large for highway use without escorts and special permits.
Mini trucks, small Commercial vehicles used for delivering light loads over short distances.
Light trucks are larger than mini trucks but smaller than medium trucks. In the US, they are defined as weighing between 00001–14000 lb (0001–6350 kg). There is no smaller classification.
- Sport utility vehicle
- Pickup truck/Ute
- Panel truck
- Canopy express
- Panel van
- Tow truck (may also be a medium or heavy truck)
Medium trucks are larger than light but smaller than heavy trucks. In the US, they are defined as weighing between 14001–26000 lb (6351–11793 kg). In North America, a medium-duty truck is larger than a heavy-duty pickup truck or full-size van. Some trucks listed as medium also are made in heavy versions.
- Box truck
- Cutaway van chassis
- Medium Duty Truck such as Ford F-650 in North America
- Medium Standard Truck
- Platform truck
- Flatbed truck (may also be light-duty trucks)
- Stake bed truck (may also be light-duty trucks)
- Firetruck (may also be a heavy truck)
- Recreational Vehicle or Motorhome
The following are not types of trucks but types of use of the trucks listed above:
Delivery truck, Multi-Stop truck, Bottler.
Heavy trucks are heavier than medium trucks. They weigh between 26001 to over 33000 lb (11794 to over 14969 kg). There is no higher on-road classification.
Many heavy trucks listed are also made in medium duty versions:
- Concrete transport truck (cement mixer)
- Mobile crane
- Dump truck
- Garbage truck
- Log carrier
- Refrigerator truck
- Tractor unit
- Tank truck
Very heavy trucks and transporters
Vehicles in this category are too large for highway use without escorts and special permits.
Haul truck – an exceptionally large off-road dump truck, common in mining operations
Ballast tractor – a very heavy weight power source for towing and pulling exceptional loads.
Heavy hauler – a combination of power source and very heavy weight transporter.
ALMA transporter – is used for transportation of ALMA transporter antennae.
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Body types of Trucks
Box trucks (“tilts” in the UK) have walls and a roof, making an enclosed load space. The rear has doors for unloading; a side door is sometimes fitted.
Chassis cab trucks have a fully-enclosed cab at the front, with bare chassis frame-rails behind, suitable for subsequent permanent attachment of a specialized payload, like a fire-truck or ambulance body.
Concrete mixers have a rotating drum on an inclined axis, rotating in one direction to mix, and in the other to discharge the concrete down chutes. Because of the weight and power requirements of the drum body and rough construction sites, mixers have to be very heavy duty.
Dump trucks (“tippers” in the UK) transport loose material such as sand, gravel, or dirt for construction. A typical dump truck has an open-box bed, which is hinged at the rear and lifts at the front, allowing the material in the bed to be unloaded (“dumped”) on the ground behind the truck.
Flatbed trucks have an entirely flat, level platform body. This allows for quick and easy loading but has no protection for the load. Hanging or removable sides are sometimes fitted.
Refrigerator trucks have insulated panels as walls and a roof and floor, used for transporting fresh and frozen cargo such as ice cream, food, vegetables, and prescription drugs. They are mostly equipped with double-wing rear doors, but a side door is sometimes fitted.
Refuse trucks have a specialized body for collecting and, often, compacting trash collected from municipal, commercial, and industrial sites. This application has the widest use of the cab-over configuration in North America, to provide better maneuverability in tight situations. They are also among the most severe-duty and highest GVWR trucks on public roads.
Semi-tractors (“artics” in the UK) have a fifth wheel for towing a semi-trailer instead of a body.
Tank trucks (“tankers” in the UK) are designed to carry liquids or gases. They usually have a cylindrical tank lying horizontally on the chassis. Many variants exist due to the wide variety of liquids and gases that can be transported.
Wreckers (“recovery lorries” in the UK) are used to recover and/or tow disabled vehicles. They are normally equipped with a boom with a cable; wheel/chassis lifts are becoming common on newer trucks.
In many countries, driving a truck requires a special driving license. The requirements and limitations vary with each different jurisdiction.
In Australia, a truck driver’s license is required for any motor vehicle with a Gross Vehicle Mass (GVM) exceeding 4.5 t (4.4 long tons; 5.0 short tons). The motor vehicles classes are further expanded as:
HC: Heavy Combination, a typical prime mover plus semi-trailer combination.
MC: Multi Combination, e.g., B Doubles/road trains
LR: Light rigid: a rigid vehicle with a GVM of more than 4.5 t (4.4 long tons; 5.0 short tons) but not more than 8 t (7.9 long tons; 8.8 short tons). Any towed trailer must not weigh more than 9 t (8.9 long tons; 9.9 short tons) GVM.
MR: Medium rigid: a rigid vehicle with 2 axles and a GVM of more than 8 t (7.9 long tons; 8.8 short tons). Any towed trailer must not weigh more than 9 t (8.9 long tons; 9.9 short tons) GVM. Also includes vehicles in class LR.
HR: Heavy Rigid: a rigid vehicle with three or more axles and a GVM of more than 8 t (7.9 long tons; 8.8 short tons). Any towed trailer must not weigh more than 9 t (8.9 long tons; 9.9 short tons) GVM. Also includes articulated buses and vehicles in class MR.
Heavy vehicle transmission
There is also a heavy vehicle transmission condition for a license class HC, HR, or MC test passed in a vehicle fitted with an automatic or synchromesh transmission; a driver’s license will be restricted to vehicles of that class fitted with a synchromesh or automatic transmission. To have the condition removed, a person needs to pass a practical driving test in a vehicle with non-synchromesh transmission (constant mesh or crash box).
Did You Know?
Diesel Force can do 10 year major inspection and certification (10 year test)
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