Knowledge Base referenced from Wikipedia
About Heavy Equipment
Heavy equipment or heavy machinery refers to heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing construction tasks, most frequently ones involving earthwork operations or other large construction tasks. Heavy equipment usually comprises five equipment systems: implementation, traction, structure, power train, control and information.
Heavy equipment has been used since at least the 1st century BCE when the ancient Roman engineer Vitruvius described a crane in De architectura when it was powered via human or animal labor.
Heavy equipment functions through the mechanical advantage of a simple machine, the ratio between input force applied and force exerted is multiplied, making tasks which could take hundreds of people and weeks of labor without heavy equipment far less intensive in nature. Some equipment uses hydraulic drives as a primary source of motion.
The term “plant” is used to refer to any mobile type of heavy machinery.
Types of Heavy Machinery
These subdivisions, in this order, are the standard heavy equipment categorization.
- Agricultural tractors
- Track skidder
- Track-type tractors (Bulldozer)
- Military engineering vehicles
- Skid steer loader
- Amphibious excavator
- Compact excavator
- Dragline excavator
- Bucket-wheel excavator
- Excavator (digger)
- Long reach excavator
- Power shovel
- Steam shovel
- Suction excavator
- Walking Excavator
- Trencher (machine)
- Backhoe loader, Backhoe
- Feller buncher
- Track harvester
- Wheel forwarder
- Wheel skidder
- Pipelayer (sideboom)
- Fresno scraper
- Wheel tractor-scraper (belly scraper)
- Construction & mining tractor
- Construction & mining trucks
- Articulated hauler
- Articulated truck
- Wheel dozers – soil compactors
- Soil stabilizer
- Skip loader (skippy)
- Wheel loader (front loader, integrated tool carrier)
- Track loader
- Aerial work platform / Lift table
- Cherry picker
- Knuckleboom loader (trailer mount) &
- Knuckleboom loader (trailer mount)
- Straddle carrier
- Reach stacker
- Telescopic handlers
- Asphalt paver
- Asphalt plant
- Cold planer
- Cure rig
- Pavement milling
- Pneumatic tire compactor
- Roller (road roller or roller compactor)
- Slipform paver
- Vibratory compactor, Compactor
- Tunnel boring machine
- Underground mining equipment
- Ballast tamper
- Drilling machine
- Pile driver
- Rotary tiller (rototiller, rotovator)
- Dump truck
- Highway 10 yard rear dump
- Highway bottom dump (stiff), pup (belly train), triple
- Highway end dump and side dump
- Highway transfer, Transfer train
- Highway transit-mixer
- Street sweeper
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Implements and hydromechanical work tools
- bale spear
- bulldozer blade
- clam shell bucket
- cold plane
- demolition shears
- equipment bucket
- excavator bucket
- hydraulic hammer, hoe
- hydraulic tilting bucket (4-in-1)
- landscape tiller
- material handling arm
- mechanical pulverizer, crusher
- multi processor
- pavement removal bucket
- pile driver
- power take-off (PTO)
- quick coupler
- rotating grab
- sheep’s foot compactor
- skeleton bucket
- snow blower
- stump grinder
- stump shear
- vibratory plate compactor
- wheel saw
Traction: Off-the-road tires and tracks
Heavy equipment requires specialised tires for various construction applications. While many types of equipment have continuous tracks applicable to more severe service requirements, tires are used where greater speed or mobility is required. An understanding of what equipment will be used for during the life of the tires is required for proper selection. Tire selection can have a significant impact on production and unit cost. There are three types of off-the-road tires, transport for earthmoving machines, work for slow moving earthmoving machines, and load and carry for transporting as well as digging. Off-highway tires have six categories of service C compactor, E earthmover, G grader, L loader, LS log-skidder and ML mining and logging. Within these service categories are various tread types designed for use on hard-packed surface, soft surface and rock. Tires are a large expense on any construction project, careful consideration should be given to prevent excessive wear or damage.
Heavy equipment operator
A heavy equipment operator drives and operates heavy equipment used in engineering and construction projects. Typically only skilled workers may operate heavy equipment, and there is specialized training for learning to use heavy equipment.
Much publication about heavy equipment operators focuses on improving safety for such workers. The field of occupational medicine researches and makes recommendations about safety for these and other workers in safety-sensitive positions.
Heavy machinery is used in mining to explore and develop sites, to remove and stockpile overburden, to break and remove rocks of various hardness and toughness, to process the ore, and to carry out reclamation projects after the mine is closed. Bulldozers, drills, explosives and trucks are all necessary for excavating the land. In the case of placer mining, unconsolidated gravel, or alluvium, is fed into machinery consisting of a hopper and a shaking screen or trommel which frees the desired minerals from the waste gravel. The minerals are then concentrated using sluices or jigs.
Large drills are used to sink shafts, excavate stopes, and obtain samples for analysis. Trams are used to transport miners, minerals and waste. Lifts carry miners into and out of mines, and move rock and ore out, and machinery in and out, of underground mines. Huge trucks, shovels and cranes are employed in surface mining to move large quantities of overburden and ore. Processing plants utilize large crushers, mills, reactors, roasters and other equipment to consolidate the mineral-rich material and extract the desired compounds and metals from the ore.
Haul trucks are off-highway, rigid dump trucks specifically engineered for use in high-production mining and heavy-duty construction environments. Haul trucks are also used for transporting construction equipment from job site to job site. Some are multi-axle in order to support the equipment that is being hauled.
An articulated hauler, articulated dump truck (ADT), or sometimes a dump hauler, is a very large heavy-duty type of dump truck used to transport loads over rough terrain, and occasionally on public roads. The vehicle usually has all-wheel drive and consists of two basic units: the front section, generally called the tractor, and the rear section that contains the dump body, called the hauler or trailer section. Steering is made by pivoting the front in relation to the back by hydraulic rams. This way, all wheels follow the same path, making it an excellent off-road vehicle.
Manufacturers include Caterpillar, Terex, John Deere/Bell Equipment, Moxy/Doosan, Volvo CE, and Komatsu Limited. With half of the global sales, Volvo is the market leader in the segment, and is also the prime pioneer of the vehicle, enabling its introduction to the markets in 1966.
Although first envisioned as a soil and aggregate transporter (dumper), the chassis have since been used for many other applications include agriculture, mining, construction and highway maintenance. Ranging from concrete mixer, water tanker and container truck, over to upsize off-road semi-trailer hauler (on-road applications), hook loader or crane, as well as used to transport timber and as a woodchipper platform. Its chassis have also been used for military purposes given that it only is surpassed by tracked vehicles in off-road capabilities. An example is the Archer Artillery System.
Diesel Force – Specialists from top to bottom
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- Welding and fabrication
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(light and heavy vehicles – all models)
- Minor panel and body repairs and painting
- Trailer and vehicle brake overhauls
Agricultural machinery relates to the mechanical structures and devices used in farming or other agriculture. There are many types of such equipment, from hand tools and power tools to tractors and the countless kinds of farm implements that they tow or operate. Diverse arrays of equipment are used in both organic and nonorganic farming. Especially since the advent of mechanised agriculture, agricultural machinery is an indispensable part of how the world is fed.
Agricultural machinery types
Tractors do the majority of work on a modern farm. They are used to push/pull implements—machines that till the ground, plant seed, and perform other tasks. Tillage implements prepare the soil for planting by loosening the soil and killing weeds or competing plants. The best-known is the plow, the ancient implement that was upgraded in 1838 by John Deere. Plows are now used less frequently in the U.S. than formerly, with offset disks used instead to turn over the soil, and chisels used to gain the depth needed to retain moisture.
Combine is a machine designed to efficiently harvest a variety of grain crops. The name derives from its combining four separate harvesting operations—reaping, threshing, gathering, and winnowing—into a single process. Among the crops harvested with a combine are wheat, rice, oats, rye, barley, corn (maize), sorghum, soybeans, flax (linseed), sunflowers and rapeseed.
The most common type of seeder is called a planter, and spaces seeds out equally in long rows, which are usually two to three feet apart. Some crops are planted by drills, which put out much more seed in rows less than a foot apart, blanketing the field with crops. Transplanters automate the task of transplanting seedlings to the field. With the widespread use of plastic mulch, plastic mulch layers, transplanters, and seeders lay down long rows of plastic, and plant through them automatically.
After planting, other agricultural machinery such as self-propelled sprayers can be used to apply fertilizer and pesticides. Agriculture sprayer application is a method to protect crops from weeds by using herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides. Spraying or planting a cover crop are ways to mix weed growth.
Balers and other agriculture implements
Planting crop Hay balers can be used to tightly package grass or alfalfa into a storable form for the winter months. Modern irrigation relies on machinery. Engines, pumps and other specialized gear provide water quickly and in high volumes to large areas of land. Similar types of equipment such as agriculture sprayers can be used to deliver fertilizers and pesticides.
Besides the tractor, other vehicles have been adapted for use in farming, including trucks, airplanes, and helicopters, such as for transporting crops and making equipment mobile, to aerial spraying and livestock herd management.
A ballast tractor is a specially weighted tractor unit of a heavy hauler combination. It is designed to utilize a drawbar to pull or push heavy or exceptionally large trailer loads which are loaded in a hydraulic modular trailer. When feasible, lowboy-style semi-trailers are used to minimize a load’s center of gravity. Typical drivetrains are 6×4 and 6×6 but also available in 8×6 and 8×8. Typical ballast tractor loads include oil rig modules, bridge sections, buildings, ship sections, and industrial machinery such as generators and turbines.
Only a handful of manufacturers produce dedicated ballast tractors. Extra-heavy-duty chassis versions of mass-production tractor units are fitted with drawbar hitches and a separate ballast box as an alternative. These units are classified as N3 Category of Large goods vehicle. Ballast tractors can be traced back to the 1940s when heavy haulers from the UK started employing purpose-built Scammell Showtracs a short wheelbase 4×2 ballast tractor.
Increasingly, remote-controlled, self-propelled modular transporters (SPMT) are being employed in traditional ballast tractor/trailer roles.
A heavy hauler is a very large transporter for moving oversize loads too large for road travel without an escort and special permit.
Mammoet SPMT move huge ship section
A heavy hauler typically consists of a Ballast Tractor and hydraulic modular trailer. Some trailers may have independently steerable wheels, and several might be towed by one or more tractor units in a train.
Self-propelled modular transporters (SPMT), some featuring a dozen or more self-steering axles with scores of rubber tires to spread out a load, are increasingly being manufactured. Working in coordinated teams, heavy haulers are able to carry loads exceeding 100 tons.
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